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What is the brain basis for ADHD?

Research now believe that children with ADHD do not have a disorder. What they do have is a delay of the pre-frontal cortex. The pre-frontal cortex is the front part of the brain that is responsible for goal setting and inhibitions.

ADHD Brain Study National Institute of Medical Health

Last modified on Tuesday, 07 February 2012 15:55

What do my child’s IEP goals mean?

Important Vocabulary

Expressive Language spoken language (i.e. words, sentences, stories)
Receptive Language language comprehension, understanding of language
Articulation how a child produces the sounds in words
Semantics The meaning of language, including vocabulary
Syntax grammar, putting words into sentences
Pragmatics social language
Phonological Awareness the ability to recognize that sounds have meaning (i.e. a horn, a dog barking,language), important for basic listening skills that underlie academic/life success.
Phonemic Awareness the ability to recognize the words are made up of individual sounds, important for reading
Auditory Memory how one remembers information that is heard
Verbal Memory how one remembers language that is said out loud
Visual Memory how one remembers things that are seen

b.  How to understand the IEP paperwork
The IEP team is made up of: the parents, a general education teacher, a special education teacher, related service providers (OT, PT, Speech, Social work) and a district representative. Each member of this team has important information that will be included in the IEP. Here is a brief guide to the  IEP paperwork used in District 69. If you have more questions, feel free to contact your student’s special education teacher or Speech Language Pathologist.

Annual Review Date- Every year, the special education team (including the parent) needs to meet to review your child’s goals and current levels of performance.  This review of goals must be completed before this annual review date.  

Triennial Reevaluation Due Date:  Every three years (unless specially discussed with you), the special education team needs to re-assess your child’s progress using standardized assessment tools .  This  review will happen before this triennial review date.

Family Report-  Before an IEP meeting, someone from the school special  education team will send home this information gathering sheet.  It is helpful if you fill out this form with as much information about your child before the meeting.  It is not necessary to type this information, and you can attach extra pages if needed.

Present Levels of Academic Acheivement and Functional Peformance  (PLOP)-  These pages represent how  your child is currently functioning at school.  Various school personnel that work with your child will fill out their respective areas, and the information in this document is used to write goals. We encourage you to look over these areas and ask questions at the IEP meeting.  

Goal Pages:  Goals are written based on the areas of need identified in the PLOP. Various special education staff that work with your child will write these goals.  Each goal will have one separate page.    

Educational Accomondations and Support Page:  This page will list other ways that we can help your child at school.  It might include how we can change the environment (i.e. where your child sits in class), or how we can specially change the workload to best meet your child’s needs.  We can also list ways that we can specially help your child that are not listed already in the IEP.    Your input is welcome.

AssessmentAssessmentDefinition: The process of collecting and interpreting information that can be used to inform teachers, students, and, when applicable, parents/guardians or other users of assessment information about students’ progress in attaining the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviors to be learned or acquired in school....
Page:   This page will show various ways that children in the district are assessed. We can make special accomodations to meet the needs of your child if necessary.

Educational Services and Placement:
These pages shows where your child will be educated during the day.  The MPW (minutes  per week) show the minimum amount of time each special educator will be  spending with your time.   The last of these pages show where your child will be placed for the majority of the day (placement considerations) as well whether  or not extended school year (summer school) is recommended for your child. 

Last modified on Tuesday, 14 August 2012 10:59

What is RTI?
RTI, or response to intervention, is a service delivery model that allows children to receive tiered support for speech and language services. RTI is divided into three tiers (Tier 1, Tier 2, and Tier 3) with children receiving speech and language services through an IEP (individualized education plan) at the top of the third tier. Students' progress is evaluated at the end of every 6-8 week cycle.

Tier 1

Tier 1 services are provided in the classroom. The speech language pathologist consults with the classroom teacher and helps provide visual cues, verbal cues, and accommodations that can help the student improve his or her speech and language skills. The speech pathologist may also check in weekly or bi-weekly with Tier 1 students. Students remain in Tier 1 for at least one 6-8 week cycle.

Tier 2

Tier 2 services are provided as a pull-out service (outside the general education classroom). Students in Tier 2 receive 15-30 minutes per week of direct service from the speech language pathologist. Students receiving Tier 2 services are seen in small groups (usually 2-4 students) who are all working on similar goals. Students remain in Tier 2 for at least two 6-8 week cycles.

Tier 3

Tier 3 services are also provided as a pull-out service. Students receiving Tier 3 services have not made adequate progress on their goals during two consecutive cycles of Tier 2 services. Tier 3 services are more intensive - students will either receive more minutes per week, more individualized attention, or more intensive instruction. Students remain in Tier 2 services for at least one 6-8 week cycle.




Flowchart: Alternate Process: Parental consent for therapy Flowchart: Alternate Process: Tier 1 (6-8 weeks)                                          implement classroom accommodations/strategies Flowchart: Alternate Process: Fail screening for languageFlowchart: Alternate Process: Non-developmental language concernsFlowchart: Alternate Process: Non-developmental articulation/voice/fluencyFlowchart: Alternate Process: Pass screening Flowchart: Alternate Process: Fail screening for articulation/voice/fluency Flowchart: Alternate Process: Parental Consent for screeningFlowchart: Alternate Process:  Call parent               Observe at later dateFlowchart: Alternate Process: Developmental errors      Flowchart: Alternate Process: SLP observes student’s speech in the classroomFlowchart: Alternate Process: Observe at later dateFlowchart: Alternate Process: Discontinue TherapyFlowchart: Alternate Process: >80% accuracy                                in conversation                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

Flowchart: Alternate Process: <80% accuracy in conversation OR not making adequate progressFlowchart: Alternate Process: Tier 3   (6-8 weeks)                                                      one cycle of increased frequency/intensityFlowchart: Alternate Process: Tier 2 (6-8 weeks)                                                       up to 2 cycles of 30 min per week in groupsFlowchart: Alternate Process: Continue Tier 2 if making adequate progress, if not move to Tier 3Flowchart: Alternate Process: Continue Tier 1 if making adequate progress, if not move to Tier 2Flowchart: Alternate Process: Domain Meeting/Testing for IEP                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

Last modified on Monday, 06 February 2012 16:13

If you are concerned about the speech and language development of your school-age child, please contact your child’s classroom teacher so that a screening referral can be filled out. Once the Speech Language Pathologist at your school receives this referral, she will complete an observation and contact you regarding further testing/therapy. Depending on the type and severity of the speech or language concerns, your child may receive service through RTI (response to intervention), or an evaluation may be opened to determine eligibility for an IEP (individualized education plan).

Last modified on Thursday, 19 December 2013 14:06

  If you have speech/language, or other developmental concerns for your 3-5 year old child, please contact  the TOPS Speech Language Pathologist, Illene Ross, to set up a screening.


If you are concerned about the speech/language development of your  newborn-3 year old child, you can receive speech and language testing/therapy services through the state-funded Early Intervention program.   

Early intervention contact for Families living within district 69
       Child and Family Connections Region #6:  Clearbrook Center #847-385-5070
Note: If you do not live in Skokie, you can identify your early intervention provider by contacting Illinois Early Intervention Clearinghouse:
Mrs. Stanton received her bachelors and masters degree from Marquette University in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.  She is a member of the American Speech and Language Association and  holds a  State of Illinois  license to practice speech language pathology.  When not at Lincoln Junior High, Mrs. Stanton  enjoys  spending time with her four children and  her husband.

Ms. Konikoff received her bachelors degree  in Linguistics and masters degree  in Speech-Language Pathology from Boston University. She is a member of the American Speech-Language Hearing Association and holds an Illinois license to practice. Ms. Konikoff’s interest areas include childhood apraxia of speech, and narrative production skills. When she is not at Madison, you can find Ms. Konikoff doing yoga, pilates, and spending time with her friends in Chicago.

Last modified on Wednesday, 15 August 2012 21:51
Mrs. Preschern holds masters degrees from Northwestern University in speech/language pathology and in learning disabilities. She also holds a school administration certification from Loyola University, an Orton-Gillingham reading certification, and a Hanen Center Early Intervention certification. She has published several teacher resource books, and presented at numerous state and local conventions in the areas of reading and language development.     When not at school, you might find Mrs. Preschern exercising or about town in Evanston, where she lives with her two daughters and husband.
Last modified on Wednesday, 19 October 2011 15:59

Last modified on Thursday, 07 March 2013 08:17

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